It may be apparent that I am very passionate about authentic recipes, especially the ones which claim to be Italian or Sicilian.

One of the recipes is Parmigiana – Milinciani or cucuzzeddi a parmiciana (Sicilian) and Parmigiana di melenzane o di zucchine (Italian). I have read recipes in a number of sources, have eaten Parmigiana in numerous places both in homes and restaurants in Italy and Australia. I have seen it cooked on television and  because there is often some very incorrect background information, I have been determined to clarify some of the inaccurate background information. I have sent this information and the recipe to SBS and it was published on their website.


I have written this not necessarily because I am a purist, but because I always like to be aware of the origins of traditional recipes and their names. I believe that like language, recipes evolve and if someone adds a personal touch, well and good, but I do like to acknowledge the origins of the authentic recipe – once one knows the basics, there is always room for creativity.

This is how my family has always cooked Parmigiana. It is how it was cooked by my mother, her mother and (more than likely) her mother before her. It represents generations of preparing and eating Parmigiana in Sicilian kitchens. And those of you who are Italian, this is how the ‘existing firsts’ made it.

PARMIGIANA….the background.

A Parmigiana made with eggplants or with zucchini is a very common contorno (vegetable accompaniment) all over Sicily. (See variation below if using zucchini). It was once a seasonal dish of summer and autumn, but now in Sicily eggplants are grown successfully in the numerous serre (greenhouse farms) which have sprouted in most parts of the island and allow the production of summer vegetables well before and after their normal season.

I quite like presenting Parmigiana as an entree as well.

Contrary to expectations it does not contain parmigiano (Parmesan cheese) nor does it originate in Parma, the home of parmigiano and the prosciutto di Parma. Pamigiana is an old Sicilian dish, most likely an adaptation and development from the fried eggplant dishes introduced by the settlers from the Middle East (the Persians). One common dish still prepared today in Iran is Kashk-e Baadenjaan. It consists of layers of fried eggplants (baadenjaan in Iranian), covered with a thick whey (kashk – a Iranian product similar to yogurt) and then sprinkled with mint.

The layers of eggplants resemble the horizontal slats of outside, louvered shutters for blocking sunlight while allowing ventilation. These are called parmiciane (in old Sicilian and persiane in Italian). In English they are commonly called Persian blinds or persiennes (from the French. Consequently the name milinciani a parmiciana, later distorted in translation from the Sicilian into Italian to Parmigiana. The Italian word for eggplant is melanzana (Solanum melongena) and once called mad apple or apple of madness by some Europeans, either because it was heard as mala insana or because the eggplant belongs to the nightshade family and therefore associated with toxins, madness and death.

To make Parmigiana, the eggplants or zucchini are fried before they are placed in layers (2-3 in a baking dish) each covered with a little tomato salsa, a sprinkling of grated pecorino cheese and basil and then baked.

In some parts of Sicily, instead of grated pecorino, fresh tuma or primo sale can be used. Both are very fresh pecorino cheeses in different stages of production. The primo sale is the second stage of maturation when the first sprinkling of salt is added to the outside of the cheese. These are available from Italian fresh cheese manufactures, but pecorino fresco (fresh pecorino) can be a good substitute.

It would seem that it is very fashionable to add ricotta in recipes on the web, but once again this is a modern development (and probably a nice one), but not popular with traditionalists .

There are regional variations for making Parmigiana in Sicily and I ate a version of Parmigiana in Agrigento that had slices of hard- boiled eggs between the layers.

Traditionally the eggplants are fried in plenty of oil, but a non-stick fry pan using a little oil, or as many  prefer to cook eggplants on a tray, brushed with oil and baked can also achieve the wanted results. I don’t think I am incorrect when I say that Italians probably stick to frying the eggplants.

Salting slices of eggplants to remove bitter juices was once thought necessary for all eggplants, but a fresh, in season eggplant is very unlikely to be bitter when cooked. Soaking slices of eggplants in salted water while you work, however, will prevent the eggplant from discolouring and minimize the absorption of oil.

An Italian signora (one of the many women stallholders I have befriended in the Queen Victoria Market) told me how to tell if the eggplants are going to be good ones. She said that as well as looking at the colour (shiny and deep purple) I needed to look at the eggplant’s bellybutton (the mark at the base and where the blossom once was). If the eggplant is fresh, the bellybutton should be either a narrow line or a line stretched into an oval shape but never round (evidence of seeds). I must look odd when I shop for eggplants, turning them upside down to check their belly buttons! I have now shared this tip with all my friends (many who live in Adelaide) and wonder how long it will be before stallholders are wondering what this new craze is all about!

It is the wilted, softer eggplants, or the ones that are not quite dark purple and are tinged with green that are likely to be bitter (a result of not enough sun or being grown out of season). It is probable that when cut, these eggplants are likely to have many dark, bitter seeds.

Eggplants discolour quickly so they need to be cooked soon after being cut;  this is why when cooking large amounts soaking them in salt water may be beneficial.

Eggplants are cooked in many ways and similar to meat – they are fried, baked, grilled, stuffed, boiled, sautéed and roasted. Their versatility is a demonstration of the cucina povera (the cuisine of the poor, making the most of simple common ingredients) that is central to Sicilian life.

eggplants, 2 large peeled and sliced thinly, lengthways
extra virgin olive oil, 1 cup or as needed (see above)
tomatoes, 1k, ripe, peeled, seeded and diced (or use canned)
onion, 1 sliced
garlic, 1 clove
basil leaves, fresh about 1 cup, small, tender and whole
salt and freshly ground black pepper
grated pecorino cheese, ¾ cup
Slice the eggplants (soak in slated water, optional).
Pat dry and gently fry the slices of eggplants in several batches until golden brown.
Place fried eggplants on paper towels to drain the oil.
Make the salsa: heat a little of the olive oil over a medium flame and sauté the onions and garlic. When the garlic clove is golden brown you have a choice of discarding it.  Add the chopped tomato, salt and pepper and some basil leaves and cook till thick.
Heat the oven to 200C
Oil an ovenproof dish and cover the bottom with a thin layer of tomato sauce, sprinkle with the cheese and a few basil leaves. Add a layer of eggplants. Repeat until all the ingredients are used up and you have 2-3 layers, leaving a little cheese for the topping.
Bake for about 20 minutes.
Present at room temperature garnished with basil leaves.
Parmigiana di Zucchine
Sprinkle thin slices of zucchini with a little salt. Leave them for about 20-30mins – this will help to draw out some of the liquid.
Pat dry. Fry the zucchini in batches and proceed as above.

My relatives in Sicily prefer to use the violet coloured eggplants they call violette in preference to the dark skinned variety they call tunisine (believed that they were originally introduced by Tunesians). The violette are seedless and sweet. There is an interesting heirloom variety of Eggplant (seed) available in Australia called listada di gadia – it is almost seedless and is striped.


Two popular eggplant recipes:

CAPONATA FROM PALERMO (made with eggplants)






  1. I have been making this dish for over 20 years and it one of my favourite dishes, this is the best explanation of the origins that I have seen, I also assumed wrongly that it had some origins in Parma.

  2. I am Sicilian American. My grandparents were from Salina Island, and Catania. This was one of our favorite ways of making eggplant, and we have always sliced hard cooked egg on top with some pecorino before baking.
    Another of my favorite dishes that my grandparents would make is to slice the eggplant lengthwise in half, then make long slits down, and stuff with pieces of pecorino, basil, and garlic. Then drizzle with olive oil, and top with tomato sauce, more pecorino grated on top. It was baked until tender. This is actually my favorite eggplant dish. I don’t know any other families that make it this way. Have you come across a dish like this before?

  3. Hi Maria,

    There are so many variations for Mulinciani cini (Sicilian for melanzane ripiene – stuffed eggplants). Some are braised and some are cooked in the oven. I found several in a recipe book called Profumi di Sicilia. The author is Giuseppe Coria and he lists a few variations where the flavours are inserted into slits of the eggplants rather than placed on top.

    There is one from Ragusa – it is stuffed with cubes of cacicavallo (provola cheese), basil, parsley and garlic and then the eggplants are braised in oil.

    He also discusses a version from Palemo that are studded with ancholvies and dried tomatoes as well as cheese( which could be pecorino because caciocavallo is very typical of Ragusa). These are cooked in a little tomato salsa as well as the oil.

    The Catanese version seems to have the cubes of cheese, garlic, basil, cubed raw tomato or salsa.

    Not all the variations have been recorded in writing.It would be interesting to know if your great grandparents also made it as your grandparents did. Your family’s way of making stuffed eggplants sounds very appealing.

  4. It is great that this blog post has inspired others to share ways of celebrating the versatility and flavour of eggplants (melanzane)! Love it.

  5. This is such great history. My father was from Gibillina, Sicily and told me the same. Wow, so impressive especially about the Persian blinds and mad apple. I am reposting this for all to see and following your blog. Grazie from one Sicilian to another. I just love food history.

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